5分快3

[翻译] 多肉养护指南(光照,温度,给水,休眠,盆的大小,介质

这篇文章选自http://www.highlandsucculents.com/,是美国一个卖多肉的网站提供给客户的养护指南,个人觉得写得不错,可以让新手少走很多弯路,所以翻译了出来。

本人只对翻译这个过程的准确性负责,不能保证文中的理论一定正确,请根据自身状况理智地借鉴。

一切权利属于原作者,译者是生物化学物理白痴,欢迎勘误。


原文:http://www.highlandsucculents.com/culture_guide.htm#making
翻译:Qiuhan




The Highland Culture Guide
多肉养护指南


Get the answers to your cultural questions here with our integrated approach. All of the basic elements of succulent cultivation are presented with an emphasis on how to combine them to work for you. It's not just another Do's and Don'ts list.
这是一份综合性的养护方法论述,你能从中得到大部分问题的解答。本文将从实践的角度出发,讲述如何满足和利用多肉植物的基本习性,可不是5分快3简单的一二三四类指南。

With this guide as a starting point you'll know why you're doing things. With a little experience you'll soon be solving your own problems and growing very good plants.
本文旨在授之以渔,而非授之以鱼。只需要稍微结合一下实践,你很快就能够自己解决问题,并种出完美的植株。



Contents
目录

Light And Your Strategy
光线与应对策略

Temperature
温度

Watering
给水

Dormancy
休眠

Making Changes - Timing
移栽的时机

Growing In Containers
盆栽的要点

Supplies: Mix, Nutrients, Containers
植料,营养,植器

Pests
虫害

Basic Equipment List
基本装备列表
 

 


Grow Plants Like These!
你的植株能长成这样吗?当然!

 

The fabulous Euphorbia pauliana
传说中的Euphorbia pauliana

 

Crassula tecta
青锁龙属:小夜衣

 

Cyphostemma juttae - a true classic
Cyphostemma juttae,永恒的经典
 
 

Speak The Language
拉丁语...入门

For many, entering the world of succulent plants and the people who collect and trade in them means confronting the Latin botanical nomenclature used to name and describe this natural world. Don’t be put off by this!
对于很多人来说,进入多肉植物的世界较大的障碍就是用来描述自然世界的拉丁语命名法,以至于在收集和交易植物的时候遇到莫大的阻碍。但不要退缩!

Learning the botanical names of your plants and how to pronounce them is essential to cultivating and building your collection. Abandon the use of common names such as “snake plant” or “pencil cactus” in favor of Sansevieria and Euphorbia. Common names are not unique and will only lead to confusion.
知道你家宝贝的学名和发音规则,对于有志向的爱好者来说是必修的一课。别再提那些俗名了,5分快3“蛇草”,“铅笔仙人掌”,你应该叫她们“虎尾兰”和“大戟”。俗名和植物的品种并不是一一对应的,用起来只会引起不必要的混淆。

All you really have to know is that each plant is a single species or a hybrid of two or more species, and like species are organized into a larger single group called a genus such as Pachypodium. In turn, groups of similar genera make up the plant families such as Apocynaceae which includes the genera Pachypodium and Adenium. Genus and species in that order are used exclusively when referring to any plant. So instead of “Madagascar Palm” we use Pachypodium lamerei or Adenium obesum in place of “Desert Rose”.
通过学名,你能够掌握每种植物到底是独立的品种还是杂交品种,并且将之归到更大的类别,即“属”里,比如“棒槌树属”。当然,具有相似特性的“属”还会形成级别更高的“科”,比如“夹竹桃科”,包括棒槌树属和沙漠玫瑰属。属和品种名组成植物的学名,所以,所谓的“马达加斯加棕榈”实际上应当叫做Pachypodium lamerei,而“沙漠玫瑰”则学名Adenium obesum。

Don’t be intimidated or embarrassed when attempting to pronounce these strange names. Everyone makes mistakes but with a little experience it becomes second nature. To get started you could even watch The Victory Garden on PBS where they consistently use genus and species when discussing plants of all kinds.
当你读这些奇怪的名字时,千万别觉得尴尬或害羞。没有人能一点错误都不犯,但只要多练习几次,你一定能熟悉这些单词。一开始,你可以多看看《Victory Garden》这个电视节目,里面用的都是很标准的拉丁文学名。



Light And Your Strategy
光线与应对策略

By far the single most important element for growing quality plants is available light. Succulents need serious natural light. This means a full southern exposure with nothing between your plants and the sun except possibly the window glass or greenhouse glazing. A full southern exposure is one which receives all available light for most of the day. Avoid locations which are blocked by trees or buildings.
毫无疑问,种出完美植株的较重要因素就是光照。多肉植物需要非常充沛的阳光,这意味着南向采光是必须的,而且在植物和阳光之间除了玻璃或温室覆膜之外较好5分快3都不要隔。所谓的南向采光,是指全年大部分时候都能享受到全天日照,而且要避免被树或者建筑挡住。

In a perfect world, your plants would be growing in a blazing southern exposure and receiving 360° light. This would of course mean a perfectly situated greenhouse or an outside location in a frost free climate. Such facilities are impossible for many of us but this does not mean that you still can’t grow first rate quality plants. This is where your strategy is required.
在理想的情况下,你的植物较好能受到南向的充足阳光,且光照要来自360度方向。当然,这就意味着一个位置完美的温室,或者在没有霜降的气候下的露养环境。这样的要求对于大多数爱好者都不太现实,但也不是说达不到就养不出一流的品相。这时候,一点策略就是必要的了。

Your strategy should be to give your plants the light they need when they need it. The keyword here is when. Most succulents will enter an annual dormancy period and will tolerate less than ideal light during this part of their life cycle.
你的策略就是在植物需要的时候才给她们所需的阳光,时机非常重要。许多多肉植物都有休眠期,在休眠的时候,她们并不要求较理想的日照环境。

If you are growing indoors, the preferred strategy is to move your plants outside during the summer months for optimum light during their growth period then winter them over in southern windows when they are dormant.
如果你是在室内种植,较好是能够在生长季把她们挪出室外,休眠期则可以放在南窗下。

If you are restricted to indoor conditions year round, you must compromise. Regardless of how good your windows are, you will still be providing light from only one direction and there will be a few plants that will not tolerate less than ideal light. You will have to restrict your collection to those genera which will grow well in your conditions or simply move your plants to better light.
如果你全年都只能受限于室内环境,那就只能妥协了。无论你窗户的位置有多好,植物都只能受到一个方向的日照,并不是所有多肉植物都能接受这样不理想的光线的。

If you are growing in a greenhouse or outside in frost free conditions, sufficient light is not your problem. In many parts of the southern and southwestern U.S. your problem can be too much light and some sun filtering material is in order especially for smaller plants in small containers.
如果你有温室或能在无霜地带露养,那阳光根本不是问题。实际上,在美国西南部地区,光线反而可能太强烈了,需要给幼小的植物适当遮阴。

Artificial light will keep most but not all succulent plants alive but that's about it. After more than a month or two under fluorescent tubes for example, plants take on a very soft weak look and quickly lose their appeal. Artificial light is best used as a supplement to your winter source if you bring your plants indoors during the winter months.
人工光源确实可以维持大部分(不是全部)多肉植物的存活,但也仅限于基本的存活。举个例子吧,在荧光灯管下生活了一两个月的植株会非常软且柔弱,外形大不如前。补光灯较好只作为冬季室内养殖时的补充光源使用。

These strategies apply to summer growing (winter dormant) succulents. As you will discover, many genera are winter growing (summer dormant) which definitely makes providing sufficient light even more challenging. However it is possible!
当然了,对于那些冬季生长的品种来说,在生长季给她们充足的光源更成问题,但这也并不是不可能的事。

How can you tell if your plants are receiving proper light? Their general appearance will be compact with the distance between the leaves very short. Leaves will also be small not big and floppy. Rosettes of leafy succulents such as Echeveria will be tight while leaves and bodies of extremely succulent types such as lithops will be compact and colorful, not bloated and soft looking.
要如何分辨你的植物是否接受到了充足的光照呢?这就要看她们的外形是否紧凑,叶片间的距离是不是非常短,叶子是否短粗精悍不耷拉。叶子呈莲座状分布的拟石莲等品种应当株型聚拢,生石花等肥厚的品种应当矮壮且色彩艳丽,不能虚胖柔弱。

This is a good illustration of what can happen to valuable plants if not given correct light levels.
这就是一个好品种烂光照的反面教材。

 

These two Pachypodium horombense are the same age. The specimen on the right has been given proper light while the one on the left is etiolated and ruined from low light. There is no way to reverse the etiolation.
这两棵Pachypodium horombense年纪一样大,右边的享受充足的阳光,左边的则因缺乏光照而徒长。这种病态的徒长永远也恢复不了。

Some of the most light sensitive succulents are the Crassulaceae (echeveria, crassula, graptopetalum, kalanchoe, sedum, etc.), Mesembs (lithops, conophytum, etc.) and Apocynaceae (pachypodium, adenium) while some of the least light sensitive are the Liliaceae (aloes, haworthias), many euphorbias, sansevierias, and stapeliads.
对光线非常敏感的多肉植物包括景天科(拟石莲属,青锁龙属,风车草属,伽蓝菜属,景天属等),番杏科(生石花属,肉锥花属等)和夹竹桃科(棒槌树属,沙漠玫瑰属),对光线要求没那么高的则有百合科(芦荟属,十二卷属),许多大戟科品种,虎尾兰和萝藦。

There are many factors to consider if you want to grow first rate, truly beautiful plants but by far, providing sufficient light is the most important. There is hardly anything more unattractive or that reflects poor cultivation technique than an etiolated or stretched out succulent. Etiolation is not reversible, unless the subject can be started again from a cutting, so once this occurs, the plant is ruined. Study your conditions and adopt a strategy for providing proper light. There is no substitute.
如果想要养出极品的美丽植株,光照是较重要的。没有5分快3比徒长的多肉更能反应种植者技术不合格了。徒长是不可逆的,除非砍头重新开始。因此一旦徒了,这棵多肉就毁了。好好研究你的养殖环境,务必找出合适的光线供给策略,这是不可替代的。



Temperature
温度

Most collectable succulents, which includes all the plants you will find on this web site, are not hardy. Although a few Agaves and Sedums might take a few degrees of frost, they will not tolerate freezing temperatures.
许多市面上贩卖的多肉植物都不耐寒。虽然有些龙舌兰和景天属多少能忍耐些轻微的霜降,却并不耐冻。

We maintain a minimum of 55° F year round for most plants while keeping our most sensitive species at 60° F.
我们一年四季给植物的较低温度是华氏55度(摄氏12度左右),一些敏感的品种则维持在华氏60度(摄氏十五度)以上。

Maximum temperatures are usually determined by weather conditions and succulents are well adapted to tolerate temperatures slightly over 100° F. Prolonged exposure to excessive heat usually prompts most plants to simply go dormant and wait it out.
较高温度则取决于天气,大部分多肉都能很好地适应华氏100度(摄氏38度)的气温。长时间的高温顶多是让她们休眠而已。

Many plants can however be damaged by excessive heat and if you are growing in a greenhouse or any other type of solar structure, constant air movement is essential. Hot stagnant air will rapidly damage most succulents.
当然了,过高的温度还是会损伤植株,尤其是对于温室等全日照的养殖环境来说,这时良好的空气流通十分必要。高热且静止的空气会很快置多肉于死地。



Watering
给水

When and how much to water your plants has always been a controversial subject. Far too much complexity has been made of this very basic element of cultivation that we all must practice.
Most importantly, it’s crucial to your development of a sound cultural technique that you realize many elements cannot be prescribed or decided for you. You must observe. Watering is certainly one of these elements and you alone must decide.
浇水的时机和量一直是个有争议的话题。尽管对于养肉来说这是一个非常基本的要素,人人必经,但却非常复杂。关键是,浇水需要与你的种植环境和习惯配套,别人的经验无法硬搬。你必须细心观察,浇水是那种只有你自己才能帮助自己的事情。

The general idea should be not how much but when to water, and this is largely determined by your environment. If your conditions are good and you are using a quality growing medium, most plants will dry out in just a few days. So as a good starting point use this simple rule: do not let containers become dust dry at any time. It works. Water, wait until the plant uses what you gave it, then water again.
基本上,浇水的时机比浇水的量更重要,而时机取决于你的环境。如果你的种植条件很理想,介质使用得很科学,大部分盆栽几天内就会干透了。因此第一要义是:永远不要让盆栽干到冒烟。真的。浇水,等到植物用光了你给她的水,就再浇。

How can you tell if a plant has used what you gave it? Pick it up. If the pot feels light, water until it appears at the drainage holes. With a little experience, you will quickly be able to tell if water is needed just by looking.
你5分快3知道植物用光了水分呢?掂一掂。如果盆很轻了,就浇透直到水从排水孔流出来。只需要一点点经验,你就可以凭眼睛就知道植物是不是需要浇水了。

Don’t think of watering as an exact science where every drop must be measured. It’s just not that critical. Make sure your plants are well watered and forget it. Yes there are some succulents that are more sensitive to over and under watering but observation and experience will ready you for these.
不要以为浇水是一种精确的科学,以至于每一滴用水都要精密地测量。没有那样严苛的。确保你的植物有水喝,然后就忘了这件事吧。确实有一些多肉对水分多少十分敏感,但只要多观察,多积累经验,你很快就能很好地应付她们了。

When watering, use a good breaker on your hose or a soft rose on your can. This prevents root damage caused from washed out mix. And finally do not push anything into your containers to test the moisture level. This means your finger or those awful dreaded moisture meter probes. Succulents have delicate fragile roots and you will only damage them. Broken roots can rapidly lead to rotted plants from this bad novice habit.
浇水的时候一定要用好一点的喷头,或者倒水的时候动作轻柔一些。这样可以防止水流冲掉基质,损伤根部。而且千万不要为了掌握盆土的湿度而往盆里插任何东西,包括手指或者奇奇怪怪的别的东西(译者注:比如牙签)。这是一个坏习惯,多肉植物的根系十分纤弱,插东西只会伤了根,而受伤的根部很容易腐烂。



Dormancy
休眠

The least understood and most critical time for cultivating succulents is the dormancy or rest period. Most losses occur during or shortly after this time because plants are kept too dry and not monitored. This is the number one reason for failure.
休眠期对于多肉来说是一个危险的时段,对于种植者来说则显得有些神秘。许多植株都在休眠期间或之后不久死去,大多由于休眠时过于干旱或没有得到仔细监护。

Dormancy is a fact of life. Plants gradually move into a rest period in response to dropping light and temperature levels. They need this break to stay healthy. Your job is to coast them through it.
休眠是她们生命周期的一部分,当光线和温度不再适合她们活跃的时候,她们就需要休息一下,以维持健康的状态。而你的任务则是陪伴她们度过这段时期。

The first sign that a plant is entering dormancy is that it stops growing. Soon after, leaves begin to yellow and drop, rosettes tighten and contract, or for very succulent groups such as mesembs, bodies can pull themselves into the soil and develop a papery covering as protection.
植物进入休眠的第一个征兆是停止生长。然后很快叶子会变黄脱落,莲座合拢。有些种类的多肉(比如番杏),身体会全部缩进土里,长出一层纸一样的外皮以保护自己。

 

In October, the Pachypodium densiflorum (winter dormant) on the left shows the first signs of oncoming dormancy by shedding leaves from the bottom up.
十月份,这棵Pachypodium densiflorum(夏型种)就表现出了休眠的迹象,叶子从底部开始脱落。

 

The Haworthia cooperi on the right (summer dormant) has likewise begun its resting period but in June. Notice how the individual rosettes have contracted and closed.
这棵Haworthia cooperi(冬型种)在六月的时候会进入休眠,莲座闭合。

You may not see much happening on the outside, but even in this state, your plants are not just sitting there. Transpiration is still going on and this moisture must be replaced. They need feeder roots to take up this moisture so naturally plants cannot be kept so dry that these roots desiccate and die. This can easily happen to slow growing species and the consequences will not become apparent until spring when growth commences and plants begin to fail. Plants are failing in April and May because of what you did over the winter months. Signs of trouble often take months to appear.
虽然外表上看不出来,但其实休眠的时候植物并没有闲着。蒸腾作用还在继续,水分供给不能停。她们的根部需要一定的湿度,所以不能完全保持干燥,否则根系就会干死了。对于长得慢的品种来说,颓败的迹象可能要到开春才会显现。你冬天对她们的所作所为,四五月份就会得到报复了,虽然这种报复可能迟好几个月才会降临。

So how often should you water during the rest period? Again it largely depends on your conditions, i.e. how fast they dry out. If you live where it’s cool during the winter, your plants will rapidly dry from heating equipment being present so one or two waterings per week may be required. If you live in a mild climate, possibly every other week will work. Just water, give them a good dry spell to the point where pots feel light but not dust dry, then water again.
所以休眠期间应该5分快3浇水呢?还是那句话,取决于你的养殖环境,即盆土干透的速度。如果你那里的冬天比较寒冷,屋里又有暖气的话,土很快就会干透了,因此每周浇水一两次是合理的。如果你住的地方气候温和,也许每隔一周浇一次更合适。要点就是浇水,等水分消失干净,即盆变轻但又尚未干到冒烟的时候,浇下一次。

What about the plants that are summer dormant and how should they be treated? Since this group is resting during the warmest time of the year, they will dry out much faster than the winter dormant species and therefore require more frequent waterings. As a starting point, water these every other time you water your summer growers but again, it completely depends on your conditions. During extremely hot weather, they may need water every day.
那夏季休眠的植物应该5分快3照顾呢?由于这帮家伙选在一年中较热的时候睡觉,盆土会比冬天干得更快,需要更频繁的给水。通常来说,夏天可以每浇两次夏型种,浇一次冬型种。但还是那句话,这完全取决于你的环境。在特别炎热的时候,她们甚至可能需要每天浇水。

It’s important to remember that you can’t force your plants into or out of dormancy by withholding or applying moisture. The one exception to this is the mistaken advice one often hears that succulents should be kept completely dry when dormant. In this case they will indeed go dormant but unfortunately it will likely be permanent.
要注意的是,你是不能通过给水量来控制植物是否休眠的。当然了,这里有一个例外,就是那句“多肉在休眠的时候应该完全断水”。如果你真这么干了,那么她们当然会休眠,而且永远不会醒了。

To better understand dormancy and its role in your cultivation, you must be aware of when your plants are actually dormant. Succulents can be organized by genus into the two groups of winter and summer dormant with the most popular genera presented in our Dormancy Table. There are a few exceptions for individual species.
为了更好地掌握你家植物休眠的状况,知道她们5分快3时候休眠非常重要。根据她们的天性,多肉可以分为夏型种(夏季生长,冬季休眠)和冬型种(冬季生长,夏季休眠)。下面这张表格列出了常见的属的休眠时间,但个别品种可能有例外。


DORMANCY TABLE
休眠时间表

WINTER DORMANT
冬季休眠,夏季生长——夏型种

This group is generally regarded as the “summer growers”. They have adapted to our northern hemisphere cycle and are dormant from November through February. Many of these will also enter a pseudo rest period for a few weeks during the hottest part of the summer before putting on a final burst of growth in September and October.
这一类多肉长被称为夏型种,生长于北半球,从十一月休眠至次年二月。但在夏季较炎热的时候,她们也会进入假休眠,假休眠通常持续数个星期,然后在九十月份再大爆发一次。

Adenia
Adenium 沙漠玫瑰属
Agave 龙舌兰属
Alluaudia 亚龙木属
Brachystelma
Bursera
Calibanus
Ceropegia 吊灯花属
Cissus
Cyphostemma
Didieria
Dorstenia
Echeveria 拟石莲属
Encephalartos
Euphorbia 大戟属
Ficus
Fockea 火星人属
Huernia
Ibervillea
Ipomoea
Jathropha
Lithops 生石花属
Monadenium 翡翠柱属
Moringa
Operculicarya
Pachypodium
Pedilanthus
Plumeria
Pseudolithos 凝蹄玉属
Pterodiscus
Raphionacme 萝藦属
Siningia
Stapelianthus
Synadenium
Tillandsia 铁兰属
Trichocaulon
Trichodiadema 仙宝属
Xerosicyos


SUMMER DORMANT
夏季休眠,冬季生长——冬型种

Usually referred to as the “winter growers”, these genera are dormant during the warmer months of May through August. Their primary growth actually occurs during autumn and spring while slowing considerably during true winter. Many will exhibit marginal growth during the summer months as well especially in the Lily and Crassulaceae families.
通常叫做“冬型种”,这些属在暖和的时候休眠,从五月到八月。他们的生长季其实在春秋,冬天里生长速度会显著放缓。许多品种在夏天也会有微弱的长势,对于百合和景天科植物来说尤为如此。
 
Adromischus 天锦章属
Aeonium 莲花掌属
Aloe 芦荟属
Anacampseros 回欢草属
Astroloba
Avonia
Bowiea 苍角殿属
Bulbine
Ceraria 长寿城属
Conophytum 肉锥花属
Cotyledon 银波锦属
Crassula 青锁龙属
Dioscorea 龟甲龙属
Dudleya 仙女杯属
Fouqueria
Gasteria 鲨鱼掌属
Gibbaeum 驼峰花属/藻铃玉属
Graptopetalum 风车草属
Graptoveria 风车石莲属
Haemanthus
Haworthia 瓦苇属/十二卷属
Kalanchoe 伽蓝菜属
Neohenricia
Othonna 厚敦菊属
Pachycormus
Pachyphytum 厚叶草属
Pachyveria 厚叶石莲属
Pelargonium 天竺葵属
Peperomia 椒草属
Portulacaria 马齿苋属
Sansevieria 虎尾兰属
Sarcocaulon 月界属/龙骨葵属
Sedeveria 景天石莲属
Sedum 景天属
Senecio 千里光属
Stomatium
Talinum
Tylecodon



Making Changes - Timing
移栽的时机

When to repot, prune excess growth, take cuttings, or in any way physically disturb your plants is closely related to dormancy. Succulents differ from many other types of plants when it comes to making changes and the last thing you want to do is disturb them when they are resting. Rare slow growing species are particularly senspurneitive and drastic changes can indeed be fatal.
换盆、修剪、砍头或其他任何物理上改变植物的行径都必须严肃地考虑到休眠的问题。多肉植物和其他很多植物非常5分快3,休眠的时候不愿意受到任何打扰。一些长的很慢的品种是尤其敏感的,不合时宜的移栽很可能会致命。

When repotting, wait until you see signs of new growth. Shaping or trimming back excess growth is best done right before the growth period. For summer growers this would be March and for winter growers, it means August. Fast growing robust species can usually be repotted or pruned anytime.
想要换盆的话,要看到植物生长的迹象了才能下手。修剪要在生长季即将开始的时候进行。对于夏型种而言,三月是个好时间,对于冬型种来说,则是八月。但有些皮实的品种全年5分快3时候都可以换盆或修剪。



Growing In Containers
盆栽的要点

Cultivating succulents in containers is vastly different than other plant groups. Using the right size pot has a huge effect on the appearance of any plant. It’s a natural tendency to want to give your plants plenty of root space in the mistaken belief that this will make them grow better or faster. In fact it has the opposite effect as most succulents will slow to a crawl. Many slow growing rare species stop altogether because they just don’t like sitting in a large volume of moist mix. Most experienced growers eventually rethink how they pot and abandon the urge to overpot.
盆栽多肉和盆栽其他植物很不一样。植器的大小是否合适对于对于植物的外观有很大影响。常见的误区是,你想要用大盆给植物根部充足的生长空间,以为这样她们就能长得又快又好了。实际上则正相反,许多多肉在这种情况下反而会放慢生长速度。一些长得慢的稀有品种甚至可能会完全停止生长,因为她们就是不喜欢呆在这么多潮乎乎的土里。许多老道的种植者都已经在反思这个问题了,并放弃使用过大的植器。

When repotting, go up only ? inch in pot size. For larger plants in 5 inch or larger containers, you can safely increase in one inch increments. If you use a container that is too large, the roots will grow out of proportion to the rest of the plant and most of the growth energy will be channeled to the branches and leaves. One look at a plant with a large crown of thin branches and floppy leaves usually reveals a container that is too large.
换盆的时候,盆的尺寸只要增加0.5英寸(1.27厘米)就够了。对于那些5英寸(12.7厘米)以上的大盆而言,1英寸(2.54厘米)的升级也足矣。如果你用了过大的植器,根部与植株其他部位的生长会不成比例,导致能量都被花费在分枝和叶子上。有些植株的树冠过大,枝干细弱,叶子软榻,一眼就能看出来是用盆过大。

The right size container makes a big difference when repotting.
植器的大小对植株十分重要
 

The Cissus tuberosa on the left has been kept in the same 3 inch pot for 4 years and has developed a nice caudex. The plant on the right was started at the same time from the same size cutting but over potted in a 4 inch container.
左边这颗Cissus tuberosa躺在3英寸(7.62厘米)的盆里有四年了,他长出了一个壮硕的茎部。右边这颗和左边的来自同一颗母本,同时切下来的,但一开始就种在了4英寸(10.16厘米)的盆里。

When repotting, disturb the roots as little as possible. Usually the root ball will come out intact in one solid piece. Leave it this way and do not attempt to crush or spread it out like you would for a tropical. This will only set the plant back and can quickly lead to fatal root rot. Also do not put old pot chards, gravel, or anything else in the bottom of your container. This will actually promote root tip decay. Simply use a piece of screen wire to cover the drainage hole.
换盆的时候,要尽量避免损伤根系。通常,根部会紧抱着土壤,形成一个球状。就让她这样吧,别像对热带植物一样还要把土都扒拉掉或把根系整理分明,这只会让植株状态衰退,也很容易导致要命的烂根。也不要把旧盆土或者碎石等垫在盆底,实际上这会让根部的尖端颓败。简单地用网线(纱窗,防虫网)盖住排水孔就够了。



Supplies: mix, nutrients, and containers
植料,营养和植器

MIX - mix is a term used in the horticulture trade for growing medium and is always a controversial subject. Exotic formulae and wildly conflicting advice abound and it’s difficult for the newcomer to sort it out. Using a quality mix is absolutely vital to growing superb plants and you shouldn’t think of it as just “dirt” you put in the container along with your plant.
植料——植料是园艺里面对种植介质的叫法,它的选取一直很有争议。那些稀奇古怪的配方和自相矛盾的建议总是让新手们一头雾水。想养出漂亮的植株,好的介质十分重要,不要以为你放在花盆里的只是所谓的“土”而已。

Is it better to buy commercial mix or make your own? The answer is clearly in favor of commercial products. Note that we are referring to professional products and not consumer type mixes like the generic “cactus soil” you might find at the discount store. The manufacturing of growing medium is complex and technical and is best left to specialized industry. If you choose to make your own, keep in mind that there are many issues to consider for which most of us are not prepared.
是买商家配好的介质,还是自己配好呢?当然是商家配好的了。请注意,我们这里说的是专业的产品,而不是市面上打折店里卖的5分快3“仙肉土”。制造植料的工艺很复杂,较好还是留给专业厂家去做。如果你想要自己配植料,请记住有许多问题都是我们通常考虑不到的。

There have been great advances in the last 15 years in commercial growing medium and the trend is definitely toward soilless mixes. These come in a variety of formulations with the composted bark being the best. Few growers today use soil based medium as the results realized with soilless mixes are so outstanding.
较近的15年里,商业贩卖的介质有了长足的进步,并朝着无土化发展。这些植料的配方多种多样,其中混合树皮是较好的。现在已经很少有人用园土配的介质了,谁叫无土植料那么好用呢?

Simply stated, soilless mixes are based on the matrix concept which is nothing more than a given volume of semi-uniform size particles which provides for maximum growth. Nutrients are then added as fertilizer in solution or incorporated dry into the matrix. The matrix is a carefully constructed blend of composted bark (not landscaping bark), horticultural grade peat (not more than 20%), perlite (baked pumice), vermiculite, and a buffering agent to adjust and stabilize pH. It contains no field soil or aggregate whatsoever.
简单来说,无土配方的基质是一些大小均匀的颗粒,以保证植物的健康生长,然后再以溶液或固体的方式添加养分。基质中科学地混合有腐熟的树皮(不是作景观用的树皮),园艺级的泥炭(不超过20%),珍珠岩(烘烤过的轻石),蛭石,以及用于调整土壤ph值的助剂。里面不含有任何园土或集料。

Two important physical characteristics to consider for any good mix are drainage and weight. One common myth surrounding the notion of what constitutes a proper mix for succulents is the idea that all moisture must absolutely drain away very rapidly leaving no excess, and consequently no reserve, so as to avoid failure from rot. You may indeed avoid root rot with a super fast draining mix but you will also avoid normal growth as your plants will slow to a glacial pace. A good mix must make both moisture and nutrients available and one that drains too rapidly lacks this essential function.
评价基质是否出色的两个重要标准是透水性和重量。传说中,好的多肉植物介质必须能够让所有水分迅速排干,不保水,以避免根腐。你当然可以照此选用干的特别快的介质预防烂根,但这样也预防了植物的正常生长,排水性过好的介质会让你的多肉长得像冰川移动那么慢。好的介质要保证一定的湿润度和营养,干的太快的达不到这样的标准。

The very worst mix is a heavy mix and should be avoided at all cost. For roots to develop and function properly they need oxygen for respiration. A quality mix will allow oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide and other gasses to escape and therefore must be light in weight. Good respiration is essential for a large vigorous root system and general plant health.
非常重的基质不好,应当不惜一切代价避免。根部的生长和作用需要呼吸,呼吸需要氧气。好的介质能够让氧气进入土壤,让二氧化碳和其他废气排出,因此重量上会非常轻。良好的呼吸是发展出强大且健壮的根系所必须的,也是维持植物健康所必不可少的要素。

A heavy mix will simply suffocate roots and is usually one which contains aggregate of some sort which should be avoided. Common aggregate used includes sand, gravel, turface, and pumice. Agricultural pumice is used to some degree in the southwestern U.S. as a growing matrix because it is readily available. It is very warm in this region and plants grown in this media will dry out at a sufficient rate but in a more temperate climate, such as the northern and eastern U.S., pumice is much too heavy and soggy. This is because it has an open-celled structure. Superior results are obtained with perlite, which is closed-celled, over pumice.
沉重的介质会让根部窒息,通常都是集料,必须加以避免。常见的集料包括沙子,碎石,蒙脱石和轻石。园艺轻石作为种植介质在美国西南部用得比较普遍,因为触手可得。这些地区的气候炎热,种在轻石里的植株会干得足够快。但对于气候更加温和的地区,比如美国北部和东部,轻石就太重、太保水了。轻石的结构中空,易储水,相比较起来珍珠岩就好得多,它的结构闭合。

A major problem for the hobbyist grower is finding a source for soilless mix. A small number of well stocked garden centers do have them for sale but a good alternative is to inquire at a local commercial greenhouse business. The owners are usually dedicated plant lovers and will be more than willing to supply you with a bag or two.
对于业余爱好者来说,找一种合适的无土介质很困难。有些库存充裕的园圃倒是会卖植料,但较好还是问问本地的商业大棚。这些大棚的主人通常是资深的植物爱好者,一般还是很愿意卖给你一两袋的。

These mixes are formulated for greenhouse crops grown in containers and when used for succulents need to be slightly adjusted with perlite. A good starting point is three parts mix to one part perlite. You will not be changing the basic design of the mix but do not overdo the perlite. Never add other ingredients such as soil or aggregate which will defeat the entire soilless concept.
他们的介质是为温室盆栽设计的,用在多肉身上需要加一点珍珠岩。可以试试用三份介质加一份珍珠岩混合。你无需改变介质的基本配比,也不要加太多的珍珠岩。千万别再加其他成分了,比如园土啊,集料啊5分快3的,否则就会破坏无土介质的概念了。

A constructive way to think about your growing medium is that it should provide some margin of error in watering. One often hears such mistaken advice to the effect that what works for one could be disastrous for another. A quality mix will perform well in a variety of conditions. If you experience frequent plant losses, you may want to consider another mix no matter how good you think your current one is. Go slowly when making changes. Experiment with just a few plants you are familiar with and observe results.
关于种植介质还有一个创造性的思维,那就是要给浇水留出一定的容错率。人们常听到5分快3的环境需要5分快3的介质这种说法,但其实好的介质不管在5分快3条件下都是好的。如果你家植株经常意外死亡,你就得好好反思一下自己的介质是不是有问题了。改变介质的配比要一步步来,先拿几株植物做实验,直到你熟悉了各种材料的使用效果。

NUTRIENTS - it’s essential to provide nutrients in some form during the growing season and then taper off to none when your plants are dormant. A constant low dosage balanced water soluble fertilizer every time you water (constant feed) is preferred.
营养——生长季里提供一定的营养是必要的,然后逐渐降低养分供给,到了休眠的时候就不要施肥了。较好是能够在每次浇水的时候混合一些可溶性液体肥。

Use a good commercial brand such as Peters and avoid hobby or gimmick type products. Quality fertilizers can be found at most garden centers and come in many formulations. A general purpose 20-20-20 or 20-10-20 works well with succulents. There are also formulae with added trace elements for use with soilless mixes and these are very beneficial. If you opt for the low dosage constant feed schedule, mix at ? recommended strength which will yield about 50ppm nitrogen. Adjust to higher rates if you feed less often (pulse feed).
肥料要选择靠谱的商业品牌,比如Peters,不要用假货和便宜货。好的肥料通常在园艺店有售,有许多5分快3的配方。对于多肉来说,20-20-20或者20-10-20的配方都挺好用。还有一些肥料里面添加了微量元素,是专门为无土介质设计的,很有用。如果你选了每次浇水时施薄肥的方法,每次用四分之一的标准浓度就够了,这样能够提供50ppm的氮。如果你施肥的频率较低,那就调整到更高的浓度。

An alternative to water soluble formulations is resin coated time release fertilizer. This is incorporated into your mix or applied as a top dressing and lasts for a specified time. Excellent brands are Nutricote and Osmocote in 13-13-13, 180 day formula.
每次浇水施薄肥的方法还有一个替代品,就是缓释肥。缓释肥可以埋在介质里或者洒在土表,其作用可以持续一段时间。比较靠谱的牌子有Nutricote和Osmocote的13-13-13,180天配方。

Not all succulents need feeding. Many groups become soft and unhealthy if added nutrients are applied and look best if grown lean. These include most of the Crassulaceae (echeveria, crassula, sedum, graptopetalum, etc.), almost all mesembs (lithops, etc.), and senecios.
不是所有的多肉都需要施肥。许多品种施完肥会看起来软塌塌的,不健康,不如长在贫瘠的介质里的样子。这些品种包括大部分的景天科(拟石莲属,青锁龙属,景天属,风车草属等),几乎所有的番杏科(生石花等)和千里光属。

CONTAINERS - it’s important to use the correct size container as explained above but should you use plastic or terra cotta? Many consider this an aesthetic decision but there’s more to it.
植器——就像前面说的,合适的植器大小十分重要。但到底是用塑料盆还是红陶盆呢?许多人认为这只是单纯的审美问题,其实远非如此。

Plants simply grow better in plastic containers because more moisture is available. If you are growing in terra cotta (clay) pots, you will have to water 3-4 times more often because they dry at an alarming rate. This is especially true for small sizes.
植物就是在塑料盆里长得更好,因为塑料盆更保水。如果你用红陶盆,那就要比塑料盆多浇水三至四次,因为红陶盆实在干得太快了,对于小盆来说尤为如此。

Most growers use plastic for 6 inches and smaller and terra cotta for over 6 inches and this works well. Also you will get a more developed better root system with round pots rather than the square design. Most importantly, all containers must have a bottom drainage hole.
很多种植者在需要6英寸(15.24厘米)及以下的盆时用塑料盆,6英寸(15.24厘米)以上则用红陶盆,这个方法很管用。另外,圆盆里的根系会发育得比方盆里的更好。较重要的是,所有的植器都必须有排水孔。



Pests
虫害

Fortunately succulent collections are not attractive to most pests. Fungal and viral attacks are seldom seen so it’s usually just insects that must be kept in check. Plants and insects are natural companions. If you have plants then you’ll have insects. If you discover an outbreak of some insect pest, there is seldom reason for panic. Your job is simply to keep insects under control. You will never eliminate them completely.
幸好,多肉植物不算太招虫子。真菌和病毒感染也鲜有发生,因此只要好牢牢地监控虫害的状况就好了。植物和虫子是天生的好基友,只要你有植物,势必就会有虫子。如果你在植株上发现了某种虫子,千万不要恐慌,只要把虫害控制住就好了,想完全祛除虫子几乎是不可能的。

By far the most common and persistent insect succulent growers must face is the ubiquitous mealybug. There are several species of it but it’s the citrus or greenhouse mealybug that is attracted to succulents. Adults are about one eighth inch in size and have a white mealy epidermis. They bear live young (crawlers) in white cottony masses on the underside of leaves and in cracks and crevices especially on soft new growth. They exude a sticky sugary substance which is greatly attractive to other insects such as most ants which will then transport the crawlers to other plants. Keep ants in check and you automatically control many other insects.
目前为止,多肉植物上较常见、较牢固的害虫要数无处不在的粉蚧了。粉蚧有许多种,喜欢多肉的通常是桔粉蚧和greenhouse mealybug。它们的成虫约有八分之一英寸(三毫米)大小,白色粉状外皮。它们的幼虫会在叶子背面形成白色絮状物,还会再柔弱的新生叶子上见缝插针。它们会分泌一种黏糊糊的蜜液,吸引很多其他昆虫前来把它们的幼虫搬到别的植株上,比如蚂蚁。注意蚂蚁的出没,这样你自然就能监视到别的虫害了。

 
 

Succulent enemy number one is the common mealybug. An infestation can quickly get out of control such as the one building on this Cyphostemma hardyi. Look for them on the underside of leaves, on new growth, and on flowers. You will often have hundreds of tiny crawlers that are less than one millimeter in size that cannot be seen with the unassisted eye.
粉蚧是多肉的头号大敌,一旦感染很容易大面积爆发。小心注意叶子的背面、新叶子和花。如果不仔细看,你很可能会错过上百个细小的幼虫趴在那。

Mealybug is easy to control and is seldom fatal unless left unattended. Mites, scale, and white fly are occasionally attracted to succulents, pose a more serious problem, and are difficult to eradicate. Mites, which are not true insects, are voracious sucking pests and are attracted to hot dry conditions. A poorly ventilated greenhouse full of underwatered plants is prime territory. Scale and white fly are very persistent and difficult to eliminate unless caught at the right time in their life cycle. Volumes of information exists on these pests and a little research on your part will go a long way in identifying and controlling them. The internet and your county extension office are excellent sources for help.
粉蚧很好控制,只要不是放在那不管,它们很少致命。螨虫、介壳虫和粉虱偶尔也会看上多肉,造成更大的麻烦,而且很难去除。螨虫其实并不是昆虫,它们喜欢吸食植物的汁液,常出没于炎热干燥的地方。如果通风不好的温室里面有许多缺水的植株,那简直是它们的天堂了。介壳虫和粉虱很顽固,除非能够在它们生命周期的特定时段下手,否则很难根除。关于这些虫害的防治有很多资料,只要自己稍下工夫就能够很好地辨识和控制了。网络和当地农业技术人员是很好的求助对象。

EASY EFFECTIVE CONTROLS - rubbing alcohol on a Qtip will render the odd mealybug or two harmless but what about several badly infested plants with hundreds of tiny crawlers embedded in the delicate growing apex? Try blasts of tap water applied with a Fogg-It nozzle on a trigger type hose shut-off. A few minutes of pulsating blasts of ordinary tap water worked in very close in all the difficult to reach places will render just about any plant squeaky clean. It will even clean off badly encrusted scale which is a very difficult job.
便捷的虫害控制——棉签上沾些酒精能够无害地祛除少量的粉蚧。但严重感染的植株上面可能趴着好几百只小虫子,尤其是在生长点附近。这时候就试试冲水吧,用那种可以调节的喷嘴和带开关的软管。几分钟近距离的脉冲式自来水冲刷足够把大部分植株的里里外外洗干净了。这种办法甚至能移除长着该死的蜡质表面的介壳虫,通常它们可是很难赶走的。

 
 

A FOGG-IT nozzle is a great tool for cleaning plants. It means business and works wonders for insects, weed seeds, and even spent leaves.
Combine it with a trigger type shut-off and you have a deadly weapon to use on insects.
可以调节的喷嘴是给植株洗澡的利器,无论是对付昆虫、野草还是枯萎的叶子都药到病除。再配上一条带触发式开关的软管,在虫害面前你将无往不胜。

Fogg-It nozzles are inexpensive and available from hobby greenhouse suppliers and good garden centers. Use the blue 4 gpm heavy volume size. You could even improvise with the kitchen sink sprayer but outside with the garden hose is usually more practical. This may sound a bit too simple but try it and see how effective it is.
可调节的喷嘴并不贵,任何园艺用品店里都能买到。选那种蓝色的4加仑每分钟的大功率产品。你甚至可以用浴室喷头救急,但用橡胶软管的更常见一点。也许这听起来过于简单了,但只要试一试,你就知道有多管用了。

CHEMICAL CONTROLS - if things are out of hand and you are dealing with many badly infested plants, chemical controls are sometimes necessary. The number one rule is absolutely do not, repeat do not, use petroleum based products on succulents. These are usually labeled “liquid” this or that and are designated “EC” or just “E”. The petroleum base in EC’s will severely burn succulents so avoid them at all costs. Systemic pesticides have become popular but the concept of making the entire plant toxic creates personal exposure problems beyond what many growers consider safe.
化学防治——如果事态失去控制,你不得5分快3时处理好几棵严重感染的植物,化学处理就是必要的了。首要法则是永远不要,再重复一遍,永远不要对多肉使用石油化工产品。这些东西通常标着“液态”这个或那个,写着“EC”或者就一个“E”字。EC化工产品会严重灼伤多肉植物,严禁使用。内吸式杀虫剂较近很流行,但让整株植物变得有毒会让养殖者也暴露在化学农药中,很多养殖者会觉得不安全。

Most wettable powders and water based or aqueous suspension insecticides can be used on succulents with no phytotoxicity. But again what product to use for what insect requires a little homework on your part. A recommendation from the garden center or a friend won’t do. Always go slowly when trying something new. Never apply an untested chemical to your entire collection. Do a controlled application to just a few test plants instead.
许多可湿性粉剂和水基悬浮剂杀虫药可以安全地用在多肉植物上。但到底用5分快3则取决于虫害的种类,这个就得靠你自己多做功课了。光是听园艺店或者朋友的建议是不够的。在尝试新产品的时候,要逐步地来,永远不要把没试验过的农药用在你的全部家当上。先用几株植物试试再说。

Finally if you are an active collector who frequently acquires plant material from many sources, then it’s inevitable that you will bring in new insects. A good hand lens or loupe of 6x-10x therefore becomes a necessity for inspecting new arrivals and your collection up close and personal.
较后,如果你是个很狂热的收集者,总是从5分快3的渠道购进植物,那你的藏品会不可避免地经常带来新虫子。手持式放大镜或6-10倍的放大镜是必须的,这样你才能更好地一一检查新入门的和旧有的植株。



Basic Equipment List
基本装备列表

WATERING - A good watering device with a soft breaker is essential. A simple hose or watering can with a rose type breaker is fine. We prefer a bonsai watering nozzle on a hose with some sort of shut-off to regulate flow. A bonsai nozzle is a super soft breaker fitted to a short wand and is available from most sources that sell bonsai tools.
浇水——推荐用水流温和的浇水设备,但软管或浇水壶也凑合。我们喜欢用能够调节水流的软管和盆栽专用的喷嘴,这种喷嘴带一个短棒,能够制造非常温和的水流,许多园艺用品点都有卖。

TWEEZERS - A pair of thin 7"- 9" tweezers is invaluable. Again bonsai type tweezers are best.
镊子——一把小镊子是无价之宝,园艺专用的镊子当然更好。

MAGNIFICATION - A closeup lens of anywhere from 4x-10x is basic. From a simple magnifying glass to an optically superior photo loupe, magnification is essential for controlling pests and studying your plants.
放大镜——4-10倍的放大镜就够了,无论是简单的放大镜还是光学显微镜都可以,这是控制虫害和研究植物的必需品。

LABELS - It's important to label each plant with genus, species, acquisition date, and source. When you lose one of your favorites, you at least have a chance of replacing it with this information. Lead pencil on vinyl labels is as permanent as we have found. Solar exposure quickly renders other materials to compost.
标签——给个植物标注上科属、品种、购买日期和来源很重要。如果你不幸失去了某个真爱,凭这些信息你至少还能再入一盆。铅笔写在塑料标签上的字能够保留很久,阳光会让其他材质的标签模糊掉。

POTTING - A good potting tray and trowel are most helpful. A large restaurant busing tray is great and is readily available from any restaurant supply. We like one that holds about a cubic foot of mix.
移植工具——好的托盘和铲子非常有用。餐馆用的那种大个托盘非常好用,而且随便哪个餐馆里都能搞到。我们喜欢用那种刚好能装下1立方英尺介质的型号。

POTS - Keep a good supply of pots on hand. Whether you prefer plastic or terracotta, a nice selection in half inch increments is always in demand.
植器——要随时有靠谱的渠道买盆。无论你喜欢塑料盆还是红陶盆,以每半英寸(1.27厘米)直径为间隔,每个大小都要备一点。
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